Gender is relevant in almost all areas of structural transformation. The issue has been touched upon above as part of Theme 2 relating to labour and home production. While particularly relevant to this theme through the interplay between women’s changing role in the household and labour market and economics structures, gender is an important factor within other areas as well. Women face different challenges to men within business whether as owners or workers, including among others, care and household duties, access to finance and education, and gender-based discrimination more generally. Overcoming these frictions is critical to ensuring that women are not unjustly restricted in their opportunities. It is also important that public policy with regards to areas such as education, health and labour market flexibility is inclusive of women and girls. Understanding the impact of such policies on women is critical to improving policymaking, as is understanding the benefits of including women in the policymaking process itself.